Author Archives: ENOP

Comparison between EV vs ICE cars

The difference of three types of technologies: Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) car / Electric Vehicle (EV) / Plugin Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) and a comparison between three cars of year : Open Insignia / Nissan Leaf / GM Chevrolet Volt are presented in figure.

EV_vs_ICE_2_enComparison of 3 technologies and the prices in Europe. (*)Current price in France: 0.12€/kWh normal rate, 1.56€/l gasoline

Electric cars have many advantages:

  • Great driving experience by low engine noise and very good acceleration by the large max. torque immediately at 0rpm,
  • High efficiency about 70-85% comparing to ICE (30-40%),
  • Electric motor and simple drivetrain (reducer one ratio), so more durable and lower maintenance cost,
  • Not dependent on oil,
  • No direct discharge of pollutants from the environment (including the environmental emissions by power plants produce electricity to charge the battery, the total rate CO2 emissions of electric cars is very low around 10-14 g/km).

However, the biggest obstacle of electric cars until now is the energy storage system. It means the ratio between the energy storage in battery pack and its cost, the charging time is quite long and the expensive cost while a little production.

EV_vs_ICE_cost_en

Comparison of total cost between Nissan Leaf vs Open Insignia (purchasing price without the bonus/malus in France)

Restrictions on the range (175/950 km) and the charging time for battery charge / pump (6-8 hours / 5 minutes), even if with the bonus of the government, the current price of Nissan Leaf is 23 % more expensive than Opel Insignia. However, in addition to great driving feel, Leaf does not emit exhaust emissions on the environment pollution 0g compared with 1.74tons of CO2 of Insignia for an average of 15 thousand km per year. Less fuel costs, Leaf is also much cheaper 300€ than 2200€ Insignia in France, and also less maintenance costs. So regarding the total cost in 8 years (the duration of lithium battery pack warranty), Nissan Leaf will be more beneficial. Recently, the Nissan Leaf has touched 100 thousand vehicles sold worldwide since late 2010, accounting for 45 % market share of 100 % electric cars.              

Powertrain of Twizy

A model 100 % small electric car, for travel within the city, Twizy Renault launched in March 2012 in Europe. Twizy is coupled by two words: Twin (2 persons) and Easy (easy to use). The code vehicle project Twizy is MOCA: MOtocycle and Car. MOCA aims to design an electric car not polluted environment, a cross between a motorcycle and a car, in order to profit the advantages of the motorcycle: convenient travel, easy to find parking in the big city, but driving with 4 wheels and as safe as cars.

Powertrain_Twizy_ENTwizy is designed with the propulsion powertrain architecture. This allows the vehicle has a very small turning radius 3.4m, easy to turn around and park. Three phase induction motor coupled to the gearbox (9.23 ratio) in the rear provides the maximum torque 500N.m on the wheel. That allows the car accelerates quite impressed by the total weight without load is mitigated maximum to 475kg (including 100kg battery pack).

Twizy carries a Lithium-ion rechargeable battery pack with a capacity of 6.6 kWh allowing to run a range around 70km on a single charge. That is enough for travel within the city and needs to charge every 2 or 3 days/time. The recharging time is about 3.5 hours using single-phase socket: 230V AC, 10A.

Twizy is sold in Europe from 7000€ and other countries around the world Brazil, Japan, Malaysia,… with two versions : Twizy 80 ( 80km/h ) with drive license and Twizy 45 without drive license. This version limites the top speed to 45km/h and the maximum torque/power to 420N.m/7KW.

Twizy 80

Battery Techno.

Lithium-ion

Cooling

Natural convection

Capacity

6.6 kWh

Rated voltage

52 Vdc

Inverter DC-AC Techno.

Mosfet

Cooling

Natural convection

Max. current

350 Arms

Motor algorithm control

Flux vector control

Motor Techno.

Induction machine, aluminum cage

Cooling

Natural convection

Max. torque / power

57 N.m / 12 kW

Max. speed

7500 vg/ph

Gear-box Techno.

Natural convection

Cooling

Oil

Ratio

9.21

Charg-ing Voltage

AC 230 V

Cooling

Fan

Power

2 kW

Powertrain of Tesla S

Powertrain_Tesla_EN

Tesla Model S85

Battery Techno.

Lithium-ion

Cooling

Liquid

Capacity

85 kWh

Rated voltage

375 Vdc

Inverter DC-AC Techno.

IGBT

Cooling

Liquid

Max. current

900 Arms

Motor algorithm control

Flux vector control

Motor Techno.

Induction machine, copper cage

Cooling

Liquid

Max. torque / power

440 N.m / 285 kW

Max. speed

15000 rpm

Gearbox Techno.

Single-gear

Cooling

Liquid / Oil

Ratio

9.73

Charging Voltage

AC 110 / 240 V ; DC supercharging

Cooling

Liquid

Power

10 kW / 20 kW ; 100 kW